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India’s coal industry is highly contested today. Between the immediacy of coal shortages, the transition to renewable energy, and air pollution problems, the long history of the coal industry and India’s deep economic and social dependence on the fuel gets lost in conversation. In this talk, Rohit will give a brief historical sketch of the Indian coal industry, and discuss some of the reasons why Coal India as both a company and a developmental actor has persisted, and is likely to persist in the near future. In particular, he will discuss the political and financial adaptations of the Indian coal industry since its nationalization in the early 1970s and some of the characteristics which differentiate it from other PSUs.